Reformed Churchmen

We are Confessional Calvinists and a Prayer Book Church-people. In 2012, we remembered the 350th anniversary of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer; also, we remembered the 450th anniversary of John Jewel's sober, scholarly, and Reformed "An Apology of the Church of England." In 2013, we remembered the publication of the "Heidelberg Catechism" and the influence of Reformed theologians in England, including Heinrich Bullinger's Decades. For 2014: Tyndale's NT translation. For 2015, John Roger, Rowland Taylor and Bishop John Hooper's martyrdom, burned at the stakes. Books of the month. December 2014: Alan Jacob's "Book of Common Prayer" at: January 2015: A.F. Pollard's "Thomas Cranmer and the English Reformation: 1489-1556" at: February 2015: Jaspar Ridley's "Thomas Cranmer" at:

Monday, February 2, 2015

February 412 A.D. Council of Carthage, Celestius & Pelagianism

February 412 A.D.  Council of Carthage, Celestius & Pelagianism

Editors.  “Celestius.” Encyclopedia Britannica.  N.d.  Accessed 8 Dec 2014.


Celestius, (flourished 5th century), one of the first and probably the most outstanding of the disciples of the British theologian Pelagius.


Like Pelagius, Celestius was practicing law in Rome when they met. In reaction to contemporary immorality, they turned from temporal to religious pursuits, and their reforming views found much support at Rome.

When the Goths menaced Rome about 409, the two men went first to Sicily and then, about 410, to North Africa, where Celestius remained after Pelagius left for Palestine in 411. During a visit to Carthage, Paulinus, a deacon of Milan, accused Celestius of denying the existence of original sin and the remission of sins by baptism. Celestius was condemned at the Council of Carthage (412), presided over by Bishop St. Aurelius, who excommunicated him. He left for Ephesus (near modern Selçuk, Turkey).

Celestius’ propaganda and Pelagius’ writings succeeded in making many converts, and a reaction against them grew with a powerful opposition that included St. Jerome, the great Latin biblical scholar, and Bishop St. Augustine of Hippo. The condemnation of Celestius and Pelagius was repeated at the Council of Diospolis (modern Lod, Israel) in 415 and at two African councils in 416. Although they were excommunicated in 417 by Pope St. Innocent I, the succeeding pope, St. Zosimus, was to prove sympathetic.


Celestius visited Zosimus, whom he impressed and who, after receiving a profession of faith from Pelagius, accused the African bishops in 417 of having acted precipitately. Violent outbreaks by the Pelagians in Rome caused the Western Roman emperor Flavius Honorius to condemn Pelagianism and exile Celestius from Italy. Meanwhile, Celestius, who had been commanded to appear before the pope, ignored the summons and fled from Rome. Thereupon, Zosimus excommunicated him and condemned Pelagianism. The Council of Ephesus (431) also condemned him.

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