Reformed Churchmen

We are Protestant, Calvinistic and Reformed Prayer Book Churchmen and Churchwomen. In 2012, we remembered the 350th anniversary of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer; in 2012, we also remembered the 450th anniversary of Mr. (Bp., Salisbury) John Jewel's sober, scholarly, Protestant, and Reformed defense An Apology of the Church of England. In 2013, we remember the publication of the "Heidelberg Catechism" and the influence of Reformed theologians in England, including Heinrich Bullinger's Decades. You will not hear these things in modern outlets for Anglican advertisement. Confessional Churchmen keep the "lights burning in the darkness." Although Post-Anglicans with sorrow (and contempt for many, especially the leaders), we maintain learning, faith, hope and reading. Mr. (Rev. Dr. Prof.) James Packer quipped and applied this specific song for muddler-Manglicans: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGyPuey-1Jw. Our book of the month, July 2014 is the Rev. Dr. Wayne Pearce's "John Spottiswoode: Jacobean Archbishop and Statesman" at: http://www.lulu.com/shop/a-s-wayne-pearce/john-spottiswoode-jacobean-archbishop-and-statesman/paperback/product-21652023.html. Also, our book of the month for Aug 2014 is Mr. Underhile's "The Church's Favorite Flower: A Patristic Study of the Doctrines of Grace," a handy little volume at: http://www.amazon.com/The-Churchs-Favorite-Flower-Patristic-ebook/dp/B00KUCITIS/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1403315865&sr=8-1-fkmr0&keywords=andy+underhile. We've added Mr. Underhile's anti-Marcionite and Reformed "Comfort in Chaos: A Study in Nahum" as the book of the month for September 2014 at: http://www.amazon.com/Comfort-Chaos-Study-Preserves-People-ebook/dp/B00KQX8JBI/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1407621661&sr=8-1-fkmr0&keywords=andy+underhile+nahum. We're still Prayer Book Churchmen, but we have "articles of faith" paid for by blood.

Thursday, August 28, 2014

After-Action Report Following a Joel Osteen Sermon

Triablogue: C.S. Lewis: “Newman makes my blood run cold ...”

Triablogue: C.S. Lewis: “Newman makes my blood run cold ...”: C.S. Lewis, Letters to Malcolm chpt. 6 HT: Steven Wedgeworth on Facebook .

Press Release: Western Diocese of ACNA's Theological Conference: "Pentecostalizing Evensong"

Press Release from the Western Diocese ACNA Diocese: The Fall 2014 Theological Conference,* entitled “Pentecostalizing Evensong: CCM & Liturgical Dance, Keys to Church Growth” will be held in Costa Mesa, CA.** The schedule is as follows:


Loud Praise Band Music for the Processional/Bp. Chuck Murphy will be in the quire to the side to lead the congregational in hand-waving throughout
 
Bp. Todd Hunter: “Break Dancing to the General Confession”***
 
Bp. Phenicas Biriki-Olumbe: “Charleston Jitterburg to the Declaration of Remission”


Bp. Ray Sutton: “Tango Steps & Accompanying Tunes for the LORD’s Prayer”


Psalter, OT, NT Lessons will at most have only 1 verse so as to accommodate more worship, more dance, more jumping, more "revelations in the Spirit," more prostrations in the Spirit, less reading, and less thinking.


Bp. Leonard Riches: “Modelling Ballet Reponsorials to the Lections”


Bp. Keith Ackerman: “Rapping the Apostles’ Creed”


Bp. Bob Duncan: “Heavy Metal Background Tunes for the Collects.”


Offering & Anthem: “More Ballet Moves by Bp. Leonard Riches”


Sermon 1 by Bp. Roy Grote: “How to Get a D.D. Without Doing Any Doctoral Work.”


Sermon 2 by Rick Warren: “CCM, Praise Bands, Liturgical Dance & the Results of Church Growth”


No Benediction:


Recessional: Loud Praise Band:  "The Outbreak"


Fellowship hour will feature light beverages & refreshments. Band and dance moves will be illustrated. Dancing is permitted in keeping with the spirit of Evensong (caveat: only bishops with bishops, presbyters with presbyters, and deacons with deacons).


*1979 BCP, Rite 1


**The Archbishop of Canterbury, Mr. Welby, has chosen to attend but will remain in the narthex. If you hear tongues, babbellings and other loud wailings from the narthex, it will be him praying for varied manifestations of tongues and revelatory words. We are pleased to accept his intercessions. Others may also offer up invocations to Mary or seek to channel the departed spirit of Paul Crouch, Sr.


***Babbeling in tongues, being slain in the Spirit, getting Words, and congregational jumpings up-and-down--all are highly encouraged for the participating laity.

"All Creatures of our God & King"--St. Mary's Episcopal, Edinburgh

Choir of St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Edinburgh
Canticle of the Sun (St Francis of Assisi), paraphrased by William Henry Draper (1855-1933)


28 August 2014 A.D. Andre Servier: Quotations on Islam from Notable Non-Muslims


28 August 2014 A.D.  Andre Servier:  Quotations on Islam from Notable Non-Muslims

For 88 more quotes from other leaders regarding Islamo-Dominionism & Theocratic Reconstructionism, see:  http://reformationanglicanism.blogspot.com/2014/08/25-august-2014-ad-quotations-on-islam_25.html

André Servier



André Servier was an historian who lived in French Algeria at the beginning of the 20th century. 


“Islam was not a torch, as has been claimed, but an extinguisher. Conceived in a barbarous brain for the use of a barbarous people, it was - and it remains - incapable of adapting itself to civilization. Wherever it has dominated, it has broken the impulse towards progress and checked the evolution of society.[10]

“Islam is Christianity adapted to Arab mentality, or, more exactly, it is all that the unimaginative brain of a Bedouin, obstinately faithful to ancestral practices, has been able to assimilate of the Christian doctrines. Lacking the gift of imagination, the Bedouin copies, and in copying he distorts the original. Thus Musulman law is only the Roman Code revised and corrected by Arabs; in the same way Musulman science is nothing but Greek science interpreted by the Arab brain; and again, Musulman architecture is merely a distorted imitation of the Byzantine style.[10]

“The deadening influence of Islam is well demonstrated by the way in which the Musulman comports himself at different stages of his life. In his early childhood, when the religion has not as yet impregnated his brain, he shows a very lively intelligence and remarkably open mind, accessible to ideas of every kind; but, in proportion as he grows up, and as, through the system of his education, Islam lays hold of him and envelops him, his brain seems to shut up, his judgment to become atrophied, and his intelligence to be stricken by paralysis and irremediable degeneration.[10]

Islam is by no means a negligible element in the destiny of humanity. The mass of three hundred million believers is growing daily, because in most Musulman countries the birth-rate exceeds the death-rate, and also because the religious propaganda is constantly gaining new adherents among tribes still in a state of barbarism.[10]

To sum up: the Arab has borrowed everything from other nations, literature, art, science, and even his religious ideas. He has passed it all through the sieve of his own narrow mind, and being incapable of rising to high philosophic conceptions, he has distorted, mutilated and desiccated everything. This destructive influence explains the decadence of Musulman nations and their powerlessness to break away from barbarism…[10]

“Islam is a doctrine of death, inasmuch as the spiritual not being separated from the temporal, and every manifestation of activity being subjected to dogmatic law, it formally forbids any change, any evolution, any progress. It condemns all believers to live, to think, and to act as lived, thought and acted the Musulmans of the second century of the Hegira [8th century A.D.], when the law of Islam and its interpretation were definitely fixed.
. . .

In the history of the nations, Islam, a secretion of the Arab brain, has never been an element of civilization, but on the contrary has acted as an extinguisher upon its flickering light. Individuals under Arab rule have only been able to contribute to the advance of civilization in so far as they did not conform to the Musulman dogma, but they relapsed into Arab barbarism as soon as they were obliged to make a complete submission to these dogmas.
. . .

“Islamized nations, who have not succeeded in freeing themselves from Musulman tutelage, have been stricken with intellectual paralysis and decadence. They will only escape as they succeed in withdrawing themselves from the control of Musulman law.[10]

For 88 more quotes from other leaders regarding Islamo-Dominionism & Theocratic Reconstructionism, see:  http://reformationanglicanism.blogspot.com/2014/08/25-august-2014-ad-quotations-on-islam_25.html

28 August 1906 A.D. Mr. (Rev.) George Matheson Passes—A Blind Scots Presbyterian Minister and Hymn Writer.



28 August 1906 A.D.  Mr. (Rev.) George Matheson Passes—A Blind Scots Presbyterian Minister and Hymn Writer.


A few renditions of his famous hymn “O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go.” 



A few renditions:








A few notes from Wiki-bio.


George Matheson FRSE (March 27, 1842 – August 28, 1906) was a Scottish minister and hymn writer.


Contents 





Life



Born in Glasgow, to George Matheson, a merchant and Jane Matheson (a second cousin), he was the eldest of eight. He was educated at Glasgow Academy and the University of Glasgow, where he graduated first in classics, logic and philosophy. In his twentieth year he became totally blind, but he held to his resolve to enter the ministry, and gave himself to theological and historical study. In 1879 the University of Edinburgh conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D.. In 1890, he became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, upon the proposal of Sir William Thomson, Robert Flint, Hugh Macmillan and James Lindsay. He died suddenly of apoplexy (stroke) on the 28th of August 1906 in Edinburgh and is buried in the Glasgow Necropolis. He never married.


Service



He started as an assistant pastor in 1866. His first ministry began in 1868 at Innellan, on the Argyll coast between Dunoon and Toward. He stayed 18 years. His books on Aids to the Study of German Theology, Can the Old Faith live with the New?, The Growth of the Spirit of Christianity from the First Century to the Dawn of the Lutheran Era, established his reputation as a liberal and spiritually minded theologian; and Queen Victoria invited him to preach at Balmoral. She had his sermon on Job published.


In 1886 he moved to Edinburgh, where he became minister of St. Bernard's Parish Church for 13 years. Here his chief work as a preacher was done.


In 1879, he declined an invitation to the pastorate of Crown Court, London, in succession to Dr. John Gumming (1807–1881). In 1881 he was chosen as Baird lecturer, and took for his subject Natural Elements of Revealed Theology, and in 1882 he was the St Giles lecturer, his subject being Confucianism. In 1890 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the University of Aberdeen gave him its honorary LL.D., and in 1899 he was appointed Gifford lecturer by that university, but declined on grounds of health. In the same year he severed his active connection with St. Bernard's.


Published works



One of his hymns, "O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go," has passed into the popular hymnology of the Christian Church. Matheson himself wrote of the composition:


"I am quite sure that the whole work was completed in five minutes, and equally sure that it never received at my hands any retouching or correction. I have no natural gift of rhythm. All the other verses I have ever written are manufactured articles; this came like a dayspring from on high." [1]


"O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go" was written on the evening of Matheson’s sister’s marriage. Years before, he had been engaged, until his fiancée learned that he was going blind—that there was nothing the doctors could do—and she told him that she could not go through life with a blind man. He went blind while studying for the ministry, and his sister had been the one to care for him through the years, but now she was gone. He was now 40, and his sister’s marriage brought a fresh reminder of his own heartbreak. It was in the midst of this circumstance and intense sadness that the Lord gave Matheson this hymn, which he said was written in five minutes.


Matheson published only one volume of verse, Sacred Songs.[2] All of which he commented 'I simply followed the impression of the moment' [3] His exegesis owes its interest to his subjective resources rather than to breadth of learning; his power lay in spiritual vision rather than balanced judgment, and in the vivid apprehension of the factors which make the Christian personality, rather than in constructive doctrinal statement. His other writings[4] include :


  • Can the Old Faith Live with the New
  • The Psalmist & The Scientist
  • Spiritual Development of St Paul
  • The Distinctive Message of the Old Religions


References



Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


Bailey, Albert Edward (1950). The Gospel in Hymns. New York: Charles Scribner's sons. pp. 457–461. 


Julian, John (June 1907). A Dictionary of Hymnology. London: John Murray. 


Cyber Hymnal. "George Matheson". Retrieved 2010-02-18. [dead link]


Brady, Gary. "Bio 05 George Matheson". Retrieved 2007-02-18. 


Notes



  1. Jump up ^ O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go at the Cyber Hymnal
  2. Jump up ^ Matheson , George, Sacred Songs , W M Blackwood & Sons London kindle ebook ASIN B008UC9ER0
  3. Jump up ^ Preface to Matheson , George, Sacred Songs , W M Blackwood & Sons London kindle ebook ASIN B008UC9ER0
  4. Jump up ^ Further reading per index to Sacred Songs , W M Blackwood & Sons London kindle ebook ASIN B008UC9ER0

28 August 1796 A.D. Birth of William Hily Bathurst—Anglican Minister with Scruples with Parts of the Baptismal and Funeral Offices of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer


28 August 1796 A.D.  Birth of William Hily Bathurst—Anglican Minister with Scruples  with Parts of the Baptismal and Funeral Offices of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer


William Hiley Bathurst (1796 to 1877)

Church of England

His Faith Led Him to Resign Rather than Compromise.

William Hiley Bathurst was born near Bristol, England. He entered the Anglican ministry in 1818. In 1852, he resigned his religious credentials over personal conflicts with doctrines in the Anglican Book of Prayer, particularly regarding baptismal and burial services. He wrote the hymn, "O for a Faith that Will Not Shrink."

28 August 1796 A.D. Birth of Anglican Clergyman William Bathurst—Resigned Over Scruples in Baptismal Office of 1662 Book of Common Prayer


28 August 1796 A.D.  Birth of Anglican Clergyman William Bathurst—Resigned Over Scruples in Baptismal Office of 1662 Book of Common Prayer

William H. Bathurst (August 28, 1796 – November 25, 1877) was an Anglican clergyman and hymnist.

William Hiley Bathurst was the son of the Rt. Hon. Charles Bragge. He was born at Clevadale, near Bristol, August 28, 1796. His mother was Charlotte Addington and his maternal grandmother's was Hiley, thus his middle name. He married Mary Anne Rhodes, in 1828 and had 4 children.

Bathurst was educated at Winchester at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating as B. A. in 1818. In 1819 he was ordained deacon and in the following year he was ordained a priest. In 1820 he was presented by his kinsman, Henry, Third Earl of Bathurst, to the Rectory of Barwick-in-Elmet, Yorkshire, and continued there as rector for thirty-two years. In 1852 he resigned the rectory because of conscientious scruples in relation to parts of the baptismal and burial services in the Book of Common Prayer.

He retired into private life and first lived at Darley Dale, near Matlock, Derbyshire, where for eleven years he gave himself to literary pursuits. In May, 1863, he came into possession of his father’s estate when his elder brother died without heirs. He moved to Lydney Park soon afterward and died there on November 25, 1877.

During his early years of ministry, Bathurst composed hymns and versified a large portion of the psalms. These were published, 1830, in a small volume entitled Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use. All but 18 of the 150 psalms and all of the 206 hymns in this volume are his.

Works


  • The Georgics of Virgil: Translated by W. H. B, 1849
  • Metrical Musings; or Thoughts on Sacred Subjects in Verse, 1849

Hymns


  • Hark! the distant isles proclaim
  • Holy Spirit from on high
  • Jesus, thy Church with longing eyes
  • Eternal Spirit, by whose power
  • O for a faith that will not shrink
  • O Saviour, may we never rest.

References





28 August 1645 A.D. Hugo Grotius Dies—Arminianism, Calvinism, Government & 30-Years War


28 August 1645 A.D.  Hugo Grotius Dies—Arminianism, Calvinism, Government & 30-Years War

Hugo GrotiusGraves, Dan. “Hugo Grotius.” Christianity.com. Apr 2007. http://www.christianity.com/church/church-history/timeline/1601-1700/hugo-grotius-11630111.html.  Accessed 19 May 2014.

Some men are not able to judge the value of their own work. Hugo Grotius was one such. On his deathbed he lamented the worthlessness of all he had done. He died on this day, August 28, 1645, convinced he was a failure.

Born Huig de Groot, he had latinized his name. He proved to be a precocious lad. At ten he won accolades for his Latin. When eleven he was called "a second Erasmus." At 14 he completely revised Martianus Capella's encyclopedia, having read all the ancient authorities for himself. He followed this with translations of Simon Stevin and Aratus. At 15 he held public disputations and was made attaché to the great John van Barneveld on a crucial peace mission. By 17 he had argued his first legal case and at 22 had written a book (not published) which embodied his legal ideas in embryonic form.

Grotius' first venture into international law was his book Mare Liberum. As its title implies, it argued for freedom of the seas. He took his stand firmly on the rights of man. Grotius' work as a whole is notable for its tendency to escape pedantry. Although he cited massive sources, he also exhibited a great deal of originality and common sense. Mare Liberum was no exception.

The Netherlands entered a period of severe theological disputation. Arminians and Calvinists were at odds. The States General issued an Edict of Pacification to cool tempers on both sides. This failed. Barneveld, Grotius and others saw Prince Maurice of Orange becoming a dictator. They supported the States General in negotiating a twelve year truce with Spain. This infuriated Maurice. When Barneveld and Grotius suggested a peace formula, he had Barneveld executed and Grotius imprisoned for life.

With the help of his faithful wife, Grotius escaped. He was lionized in other European countries. In exile he wrote his most famous book: The Law of War and Peace.

This book was badly needed. Christian Europe was in a tragic flux. Wars of great cruelty ravaged the land. No mercy was shown anyone except by a few enlightened leaders such as Adolphus Gustavus (who admired Grotius' work). To break oath with "heretical" enemies was the norm.

Although a Christian, Grotius relied far less on Biblical arguments than was common for the time. Instead, he showed from Christian and heathen history how the best men of all ages had been merciful and kept faith in international affairs. Three years after his death the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 embodied many of the principles set forth by Grotius. Two hundred years later his work was recognized as the basis of international law. Grotius' greatest efforts were aimed at establishing peace between Christians, but he also wrote an apologetic, Truth of Christianity.

Bibliography:

1.      Copleston, Frederick Charles. A History of Philosophy. London: Burns, Oates, & Washbourne, 1951.

2.      Edwards, Paul, editor. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, Macmillan, 1967.

3.      Morris, Clarence. Great Legal Philosophers; selected readings in jurisprudence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1981, 1959.

4.      Runes, Dagobert D. A Treasury of Philosophy. New York: Philosophical Library, 1945; p.445.

5.      White, Andrew Dickson. Seven Great Statesmen in the Warfare of Humanity with Unreason. New York: The Century Co., 1919, 1910.

6.      Vreeland, Hamilton. Hugo Grotius; the father of the modern science of international law. New York: Oxford University, 1917. Source of the image.

7.      Various Encyclopedia and internet articles.

Last updated April, 2007.

28 August 1645 A.D. Hugo Grotius Dies—Arminianism, Calvinism, Law, Government & 30-Years War


28 August 1645 A.D.  Hugo Grotius Dies—Arminianism, Calvinism, Law, Government & 30-Years War

Onuma, Yasuki.  “Hugo Grotius.”  Encyclopedia Britannica. 20 Aug 2013. http://www.britannica.com/bps/user-profile/5583/yasuaki-onuma.  Accessed 19 May 2014.

http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/69/11369-003-220B5F99.jpgHugo Grotius, Dutch Huigh de Groot   (born April 10, 1583, Delft, Netherlands—died August 28, 1645, Rostock, Mecklenburg-Schwerin), Dutch jurist and scholar whose masterpiece De Jure Belli ac Pacis (1625; On the Law of War and Peace) is considered one of the greatest contributions to the development of international law. Also a statesman and diplomat, Grotius has been called the “father of international law.” http://media-1.web.britannica.com/eb-media/35/149835-003-46C2061B.jpg

Early life


Grotius’s father, a learned man, had been burgomaster of Delft and curator of the recently founded Leiden University (courses then would be similar to high-school classes today). An extremely gifted child, Hugo Grotius wrote Latin elegies at age 8 and became a student of the arts faculty at Leiden University at age 11. He studied under the renowned humanist Joseph Scaliger, who contributed greatly to Grotius’s development as a philologist.

In 1598 he accompanied Johann van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading Dutch statesman, to France, where he met Henry IV, who called Grotius the “miracle of Holland.” This experience is reflected in Pontifex Romanus (1598), which comprises six monologues on the current political situation. In 1599 he settled in The Hague as an advocate, lodging for a time with the court preacher and theologian Johannes Uyttenbogaert.

In 1601 the States of Holland requested from Grotius an account of the United Provinces’ revolt against Spain. The resulting work, covering the period from 1559 to 1609, was written in the manner of the Roman historian Tacitus. Although it was largely finished by 1612, it was published only posthumously in 1657 as Annales et Historiae de Rebus Belgicis (“Annals and Histories of the Revolts of the Low Countries”).

Throughout his life Grotius wrote in a variety of fields. He edited, with commentary, an encyclopaedic work on the seven liberal arts by the North African poet Martianus Capella and the Phaenomena by the Greek astronomer Aratus of Soli. He wrote a number of philological works and a drama, Adamus Exul (1601; Adam in Exile), which was greatly admired by the English poet John Milton. Grotius also published many theological and politico-theological works, including De Veritate Religionis Christianae (1627; The Truth of the Christian Religion), the book that in his lifetime probably enjoyed the highest popularity among his works.

Involvement in politics


Grotius was deeply involved in Dutch politics. In the early 17th century the united kingdom of Spain and Portugal claimed a monopoly on trade with the East Indies. In 1604, after a Dutch admiral had seized the Portuguese vessel Santa Catarina, the Dutch East India Company asked Grotius to produce a work legally defending the action on the ground that, by claiming a monopoly on the right of trade, Spain-Portugal had deprived the Dutch of their natural trading rights. The work, De Jure Praedae (On the Law of Prize and Booty), remained unpublished during his lifetime, except for one chapter—in which Grotius defends free access to the ocean for all nations—which appeared under the famous title Mare Liberum (The Freedom of the Seas) in 1609. The work buttressed the Dutch position in the negotiations regarding the Twelve Years’ Truce concluded that year with Spain and was widely circulated and often reprinted.

In 1607 Grotius was appointed advocaat-fiscaal (attorney general) of the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, and West Friesland. In the following year he married Maria van Reigersberch, the daughter of the burgomaster of Veere, an intelligent and courageous woman who stood by him unwaveringly in the difficult years to come. A member of the Remonstrants (primarily upper-class “regents” siding with Jacobus Arminius’s tolerant Protestantism), Grotius was engaged in the bitter political struggle under Oldenbarnevelt against the Gomarists (orthodox Calvinists led by Franciscus Gomarus who were dominant among the ministers and the populace), who were under the leadership of Prince Maurice, for control of the country.

In 1618 Maurice, using his military powers in a coup d’état, ordered the arrest of Arminian leaders. Oldenbarnevelt was executed for high treason, and Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in the fortress of Loevestein. In 1621, with the aid of his wife, Grotius made a dramatic escape from the castle by hiding in a chest of books. He fled to Antwerp and finally to Paris, where he stayed until 1631 under the patronage of Louis XIII.

Life in exile: De Jure Belli ac Pacis


While in Paris, Grotius published his legal masterpiece, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, in 1625. In writing this work, which made full use of De Jure Praedae, he was strongly influenced by the bitter, violent political struggles both in his own country and in Europe more broadly, particularly the Thirty Years’ War, which had broken out in 1618. In one famous passage of De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Grotius wrote that,

 [f]ully convinced…that there is a common law among nations, which is valid alike for war and in war, I have had many and weighty reasons for undertaking to write upon this subject. Throughout the Christian world I observed a lack of restraint in relation to war, such as even barbarous nations should be ashamed of. (Prolegomena, 28.)

Grotius sought to achieve his practical objective to minimize bloodshed in wars by constructing a general theory of law (jurisprudentia) that would restrain and regulate war between various independent powers, including states.

Following Roman law and the work of the Stoics, Grotius placed natural law at the centre of his jurisprudentia. He argued that a law deduced from man’s inherent nature would have a degree of validity

even if we should concede that which cannot be conceded without the utmost wickedness, that there is no God, or that the affairs of men are of no concern to Him. (Prolegomena, 11.)

He made this daring argument because he believed that natural law—the most important tool to restrain and regulate wars in Europe—must be independent of religion, applying to all people regardless of their religious beliefs. He realized, however, that the goal of restraining and regulating war could not be achieved by secular law alone. He thus reintroduced various elements of Christianity into his jurisprudentia. Grotius has often been quoted to “secularize” law or natural law, but the so-called secularization of law was hypothetical rather than categorical. In order to understand this critical character of law in De Jure Belli ac Pacis, one must understand the entire structure of his argumentation.

Grotius adopts a multilayered structure of norms, including various religious ones, to restrain and regulate both the resort to war and violence in warfare. When Grotius found it difficult to persuade various kinds of rulers to refrain from resorting to war or committing cruel acts during the war by means of secular norms either by natural law or law of nations, he did not hesitate to resort to “law of God,” mainly taken from the Old Testament, or “law of love” and other similar norms taken from the New Testament. He even relied on the argument based on utility as a last resort when he found it difficult to discourage political leaders to refrain from violence by means of normative argument alone, though he wrote that consideration of utility was not his concern. This multilayered character of the argumentation was the vital means to achieve his practical goal: minimizing bloodshed.

Grotius believed that only wars with just causes should be allowed. Because there is no judge for judicial settlement between nations, war as a means to solve conflicts must be tolerated. However, causes of war should be limited to causes for litigation. For example, the defense and restitution of things are just causes of war (see also just war). He also developed a theory of crime and punishment, which he used to characterize certain wars as just punishment for crimes committed by independent powers, including states.

Later life


Prince Maurice died in 1625, and in 1631 Grotius returned to Holland. After intense debate in the States of Holland, Grotius was again threatened with arrest. In 1632 he went to Hamburg, then the centre of Franco-Swedish diplomatic relations. In 1634 the Swedish chancellor, Axel, Count Oxenstierna, offered him the position of Swedish ambassador in Paris. Grotius accepted the appointment and Swedish citizenship. He settled again in Paris, but his life as a diplomat was not as successful as his life as a scholar.

In 1636–37 he worked on the Historia Gotthorum, Vandalorum et Langobardorum (“History of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards”). He showed great interest in the reunification of the Christian church and published a number of works dealing with this subject. He also revised, again and again, De Jure Belli ac Pacis; the last edition including his own revision was published in 1646, shortly after his death. On the other hand, Grotius was not appointed to be a negotiator at the important peace conferences of Münster and Osnabrück that finally resulted in the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years’ War. In 1644 Grotius was relieved of his post of ambassador in Paris. After consultations with Queen Christina, he left Stockholm for Lübeck on Aug. 12, 1645, but was shipwrecked on the coast of eastern Pomerania. The great man, great not only in the history of international law but also in natural law, civil law, criminal law, and modern humanities, soon died of exhaustion at Rostock.

Assessment


Grotius designed his theory to apply not only to states but also to rulers and subjects of law in general. De Jure Belli ac Pacis thus proved useful in the later development of theories of both private and criminal law. It is in the area of international law, however, that Grotius’s masterpiece has been most influential. Its general normative framework provided a foundation to constitute and regulate relations between emerging sovereign states, which became the basic units of modern international society.